Monthly Archives: October 2014


Peer coaching comes from Supervision, where an expert works with one person or a group on their cases at work. It is often used for reflection of counsellors, coaches, educators.

Characteristics of peer coaching

There a certain characteristics on intervision you need to understand:

  • group of equal rank

The group that does peer coaching is of equal rank. That does not mean, that persons in the group can be differently qualified, but it means, that everyone in the group may bring in his problem equally and no one of the is a professional coach who leads the group or process.

  • common professional focus

Another thing is the professional focus. Usually there is a common professional interest. People in the group have a common objective, because of maybe the same background.

  • target-oriented process

The process is target-oriented, meaning is about a solution-focused exchange to find one or more solutions that can be transferred into work afterwards.

  • mutualy defined structure

There is a mutually defined structure that supports the peer coaching process (the main structure will be provided to you in this OOC).

  • volunatiness, liability

Peer coaching should be voluntary, but within the group there is a need of liability to take part actively and feel responsible for the processes.

  • idea of „giving and taking“

There is the idea of “giving and taking”, meaning that you learn from each other and help each other.

  • counsel without fee

The peer coaching is without fee, because there is no professional needed, there are trademarked concepts. (Lippmann 2009, pp. 17-19)

Resource peer coaching model

This guide is meant to help organizing and perform peer coaching with other PES practitoners in order to strengthen resources and responsibility of one’s own.

In the figure below (figure 1) the phases in coaching are described on the macro-level:

  • the initial phase,
  • the main phase and
  • the final phase.
Macro-und Medolevel Intervision
Figure 1: Macro & meso level of the peer coaching concepts (author’s own graph & concept based on Lippmann 2009, Berg & Berninger-Schäfer 2010, Berninger-Schäfer 2011)

The initial phase is where the peer coaching is organized and structured and to sort out what problems need to be solved. In the main phase the peer coaching process starts to find a solution for the given problem. The final phase is for making plans and giving feedback on the coaching process (there can be more than one coaching process, more than one “main phase”). Below the described phases there are three fields with “problem”, “change of pattern (state)” and “solution”. This is the meso-level of this peer coaching model. First the problem is given, then there is a need to change the pattern state: change your feelings, thoughts, physiology and behavior in order to concentrate on the solution. The peer coaching for PES practitioners is solution-oriented, meaning simply, there is not much time spent analyzing the problem, but focusing on possible solutions and further steps.

The actual coaching process on the micro-level is devided in:

  • start, roles, collection of problems, selection
  • problem & situation
  • vision, resources
  • collecting resources
  • setting goals
  • solutions & next steps
  • feedback

These steps will be described in more detail when going into the different peer coaching models (concept I and concept II).


Berg, Thomas E. & Berninger-Schäfer, Elke (2010). Die Kollegiale Coaching Konferenz. Stuttgart: Boorberg Verlag.

Berninger-Schäfer, Elke (2011). Orientierung im Coaching. Stuttgart: Boorberg Verlag.

Lippmann, Eric (2009). Intervision. Kollegiales Coaching professionell gestalten. Heidelberg: Springer Medizin Verlag.

Wolf, Carmen (2014). EmployID: resource intervision model I & II. Draft (2014, August 15)


Coaching in EmployID

In EmployID project we will have a few forms fo coaching presented to the PES. Since the project is meant to be sustainable and cost-effective there was much thinking on how to bring E-Coaching into the project without forcing the project partners to install professionall coaches at their organizations. Two forms of coaching are perfect for doing coaching without a professional coach: self coaching and peer coaching.

Young Woman Sitting in Front of a Computer and Laughing
© Microsoft Office Pictures, 2014


“In self coaching people are coaching themselves. As there is no coach available, you have to be very open to listen to your own feelings and emotions, and be motivated enough to work on yourself. There are no upcoming coach sessions to remind you of the fact that you have to work on your goals and no money lost if you don’t show up for a session. All you can rely on is you and no one else.” (Schriel, 2010)

In EmployID self-coaching can be seen as a first quick intervention for finding solutions to current problems. Self-e-coaching, meaning the use of technical devices for self-coaching is one possibility to work ad hoc on certain problems. Self-Coaching will be explained in more detail during this (M)OOC since it is a factastic method to learn the process of coaching.


“This type refers to a specific form of coaching carried out among colleagues. The members of the group take turns in adopting the role of coach and thus provide coaching to each other. All members are responsible for the coaching process. Synonyms are: “Intervision”, “Collegial Coaching”.” (Ajdukovic et. al, 2014, p. 28).

Peer coaching is a method where group members can actively faciliate each other on finding solutions for their problems. In this week you will be invited to read about the peer coaching concept that was first introduced in a workshop at a summer school in Malta by Pablo and me. Actually there are two concepts: One is for working on a group members individual problem and one if there can be group problems identified to work on a groups problem.

The Peer-E-Coaching will be performed with the currently used tools for  videoconferencing as a start till the first prototype from this project can be tested. 🙂

Coaching combinded with Reflection

In the course of the project there will be serveral ways of combining coaching with reflection. More detailed information will be collected within a concept for workpackage 4. A short introduction was made by Michael & Oliver in Ljubljana Meeting.

Coaching as Facilitation

“In EmployID facilitation not only takes place through the methods used by the identified facilitators in their specific facilitator roles, but will also be supported or conducted by the technology used to facilitate individual, group and organizational development. For e-coaching there are two major tasks: the development of a self-e-coach tool for self-coaching and a tool for peer coaching (intervision) that will be referred to as e-intervision.” (Bimrose et. al, 2014, p. 4)


Ajdukovic, Marina; Cajvert, Lilja; Judy, Michaela; Knopf, Wolfgang; Kuhn, Hubert; Madai, Krisztina & Voogd, Mieke (2014). ECVision. A European Glossary of Supervision and Coaching. Retrieved from (14.08.2014)

Bimrose, Jenny; Brown, Alan; Holocher-Ertl, Teresa; Kieslinger, Barbara; Kunzmann, Christine; Prilla, Michael; Schmidt, Andreas P. & Wolf, Carmen (2014). Introducing learning innovation in public employment services. What role can facilitation play? In: Proceedings of International Conference on E-Learning at the Workplace (ICELW) 2014, New York City, USA, June 11-13, 2014 Retrieved from

Patrick Schriel. Coaching & Training. Retrieved from (14.08.2014)



In Coaching there is a lot of work done with one’s own perception. There are situations that can be changed by actions, but also that can be changed by changing the way of perception and assessment of the situation.

Past-, present- and future-orientation

In our thoughts we mainly focus on past and future instead of focusing on present (Weiß, 1991, p. 51). There is also the opinion that there is a distinction between past-oriented and future-oriented persons.
You can find a very interesting video on that below. It is spoken by the famous psychologist Zimardo (Stanford-Prison-Experiment) and it focuses much on today’s youth and their time perspective, but it gives an interesting impulse on how time perspectives affect our perception.

What kind of oriented type are you? Or are you a different oriented type depending on situations?
Different time perspectives influence our thinking and actions and not only our own perception on ourselfs, but also the perception on other people.

Communication channels

Another thing to have in mind is the prefered communication channel someone has in a certain situation or even in general.

Have in mind Paul Watzlawicks famous quote: “One cannot not communicate.” (Wikipedia, 2014).

But how do we communicate?

First we need to distinguish into verbal (1) and non-verbal (2) communication.

Verbal communication seems pretty clear, but it is not only what someone says. The same sentence may be understood differently by others depending on how it is said. For example tone, speed and volume. But also the understanding depends on the situation or the social and ethnical background or if you talk to residents or foreigner.

Non-verbal Communication is everything else like gestures, mimic, posture, behaviour etc. Emotions are understood to be universal. Meaning every healthy human on this planet is able to distinguish between a happy person smiling and an angry person knitting one’s eyebrows. Some gestures and postures are also the same in many countries, but only by observation it is possible to read the bodylanguage since manifestation of postures are interindividual.

Another distinction needs to be made in (3) conscious and (4) unconcious communication. Non-verbal communication is mainly unconcious. Or are you aware of how your feet stand on the ground while talking to a person you like and how it is differently when you dislike the person?

Since we will have E-peer coaching as this OOCs outcome there is also the distinction between (5) face-to-face communication or (6) communication from a distance e.g. telephone call, video conference, e-mail. So there is also not only (7) spoken communication, but also written communication (8). In written communication there can be differences in expression, punctiation, way of writting and maybe emoticons that can giveimportant information about the writer.

In either way it is important to listen carefully not only on what is said of written, but how it is said and written.

Pattern states in Coaching

One of the indirect results of coaching is the emotional self-awareness and it is activated by the coach through questions focusing on feelings, affects, etc. But this is not only a result from coaching for the client, but also an ability the coach needs.
For the client it means to be aware of one’s feelings and attitude it is the knowledge or perception of the self. Knowing about your current emotional state and what influences it, is the first step to changing this state.

“The change of pattern state is a change of perspective or angle of view. The search for solutions is not performed from a problem state or problem view, but by analyzing the steps that led to the desired objective along an objective vision from the solution state. It is not possible and not necessary to delete the malfunctioning problem state. Instead, it is important to focus on the visualized solution state (Schmidt, 2012, p. 114). The pattern state with its focus on the problem or solution depends on the purely subjective emotional evaluation of a client in a situation. Emotions play a decisive role in life and they guide or lead actions (Gluck, Mercado & Myers 2010, p. 389).” (Wolf, 2014, p. 4f.)


I want to do a little exercise with you. Think of a current problem and try show it by your mimic, your gestic and your posture an remain there for a few seconds. Afterwards please think of a very happy event in your live and show it likewise. Think about how it feels and what you think by taking in the different states.

Change the pattern state of your client

For your coaching process you can invite the client to think of a moment of pure happiness or a former success or of a hot chocolate with marshmellows. At least that would work with me.

Just say: “Can you imagine a moment where you were really happy? How did it feel? What did you think”

Or you can do that future oriented by asking “Imagine your problem is solved. What is there then? How does it feel? What do you think then?”


Gluck, M.A., Mercado, E., & Myers, C.E. (2010). Lernen und Gedächtnis Vom Gehirn zum Verhalten. Heidelberg: Spektrum Akademischer Verlag

RSA Animate (2010, May 24). Philipp Zimbardo: The Secret Powers of Time. [Video File] Retrieved from (YouTube)

Schmidt, Gunter (2012). Liebesaffären zwischen Problem und Lösung – Hypnosystemisches Arbeiten in schwierigen Kontexten. Heidelberg: Carl-Auer Verlag

Weiß, Josef (1991). Selbst-Coaching. Persönliche Power und Kompetenz gewinnen. Paderborn: Junfermann Verlag

Wikipedia (2014) Paul Watzlawick. Retrieved from

Wolf, Carmen (2014; in prep.). The Trouble with Systemic Solution-oriented Self E-Coaching – Emotions as a key factor in changing patterns. Upcoming Workshop Proceedings of MATEL 2014

Coaching Basics

To get started please take a minute and think about what you understand with coaching. When you hear coaching, what comes to your mind?

What is coaching?

On the web there was a nice introduction video on coaching that makes it quite clear what coaching is for a start:

So coaching is a very different communication. There “a whole lot of asking and not much telling”.

Professional coaches are

  • “focused on you helping you design your future, your goals,
  • discerning listeners,
  • empathetic,
  • creative, intuitive & curious,
  • trained in coaching behaviors, competent and
  • work with professional standards & ethics.” (SmithLeadershipLLC, 2012).

Settings in Coaching

There are several possible settings in coaching.

(1) One-on-one-coaching

  • Individual coaching or personal coaching with one professional coach and one client/coachee.

(2) Coaching of multiple persons

  • Group coaching: a professional coach coaching a group of 2 or more persons.
  • Team coaching: a professional coach coaching a group of 2 or more persons that are a team within an organization or project.
  • Organizational coaching: a professional coach coaching different members of an organization either in groups, teams or individual.
  • Peer coaching/ Intervision: Coaching of a group without a professional coach, but with a group members having received training in peer coaching. This format comes originally from supervision and is also called collegial coaching, collegial transfer coaching, collegial counselling etc.

(3) Other settings

  • Self-Coaching: Coaching without a professional coach supported by self-coaching material.
  • Coaching-based training sessions: Training with elements of coaching.
  • Complementary consultancy: Coaching and Training combined, but with a separate trainer for the trainings sessions and a separate coach for the coaching sessions (Dietz & Müller 2012, p. 30; Lippmann 2013, pp. 87)

If any of these coaching settings is delivered though technological modalities it is E-Coaching.

Ethics in Coaching

One of the most important points in coaching, before a coaching process can be started is to be clear and transparent about ethics.
Since coaching is at the moment more and more professionalized there are a lot of associations and the members there engage themselves to keep the ethical standards of their association.

International Coaching Federation (ICF) – Code of Ethics
As example there is the code of ethics by the International Coaching Federation (ICF) to give you an understanding on what is meant by ethics in coaching.

This is very crucial. In peer coaching the whole coaching group needs to engage themselves to keep ethical standards and this has to be discussed in the very beginning.
Think for a moment about what is important to you? Which rules and standards does a group need to provide and keep, to make you feel comfortable with working on your problems? What should be consequences for disregarding the rules?
Please discuss this topic within the EmployID TalkReflect App.


Dietz, Thomas & Müller, Gabriele (2012). 1.4 Coaching Services. Deutscher Bundesverband Coaching e.V. (German Federal Association for Excecutive Coaching) (Publisher). Guidelines and Recommendations on the Development of Coaching as a Profession. A Compendium Including the Professional Standards of the DBVC. Osnabrück: Steinbacher Druck. Retrieved from: (17.04.2014) pp. 29-33

International Coaching Federation (ICF) (2008, December 18). Code of Ethics. Retrieved from

Lippmann, Eric (2013). Coaching. Angewandte Psychologie für die Beratungspraxis. Berlin/ Heidelberg: Springer Verlag.

SmithLeadershipLLC (2012, July 17). What is Coaching? [Video file]. Retrieved from (YouTube).